Influential politicians such as Iain Duncan Smith and Graham Allen have forcefully pushed for the reorganisation of UK family policy around an agenda of neuroscience-based early intervention. But critics are extremely concerned about what the trend for looking at childrearing in narrowly scientific terms means for families, children and society. Can neuroscience shed any light on childrearing and family life? Why does it seem to have such an appeal for politicians and policy makers? Speakers share some extraordinary truths in this engaging Battle of Ideas debate filmed at the Barbican.